Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is not only rapidly spreading but has become a global pandemic that affects many, including developing countries with limited resources (Singhal, 2020). In fact, even the currently affected developed countries are overwhelmed in their fight against Covid-19 (Bénassy-Quéré et al., 2020; Heymann and Shindo, 2020; Saglietto et al., 2020). It is considered that most developing countries will face more challenges than developed countries in curbing the spread of Covid-19 in their regions, causing them to potentially evolve into the new epicenter of the pandemic, and Indonesia is not exempted (Hopman et al., 2020).
Covid-19 is caused by a type of influenza virus that suppresses the body’s immune system so that the viruses can grow in the respiratory tissues and organs (Shi et al., 2020; Xu et al., 2020). In this situation, individuals who are elderly or with prior comorbidities are more vulnerable to the severe effects of Covid-19 due to inadequate immune systems (Garnier-Crussard et al., 2020; Le Couteur et al., 2020; Morley and Vellas, 2020). Besides that, inadequate healthcare management, such as failure to provide early diagnosis and prompt treatment, would decrease the rate of recovery among Covid-19 patients (Greenhalgh et al., 2020; Hopman et al., 2020).